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Liver & Gallbladder References

  1. Hofmann AF, Eckmann L. How bile acids confer gut mucosal protection against bacteria. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103(12):4333-4.
  2. Sieron D, Czerny B, Sieron-Stoltny K, et al. The effect of chronic estrogen application on bile and gallstone composition in women with cholelithiasis. Minerva Endocrinol. 2016 Mar;41(1):19-27. Epub 2014 Nov 21.
  3. Shaffer EA. Epidemiology and risk factors for gallstone disease: has the paradigm changed in the 21st century? Curr Gastroenterol Rep. 2005. May;7(2):132-40.
  4. Wei J, Qiu DK, Ma X. Bile acids and insulin resistance: implications for treating nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. J Dig Dis. 2009 May;10(2):85-90.
  5. Chang Y, Sung E, Ryu S, Park YW, Jang YM, Park M. Insulin resistance is associated with gallstones even in non-obese, non-diabetic Korean men. J Korean Med Sci. 2008;23(4):644-50.
  6. Laukkarinen J, Sand J, Nordback I. The Underlying Mechanisms: How Hypothyroidism Affects the Formation of Common Bile Duct Stones—A Review. HPB Surgery. 2012; 2012(102825).
  7. Laukkarinen J, Sand J, Saaristo R, et al. Is bile flow reduced in patients with hypothyroidism? Surgery. 2003. Mar;133(3):288-93.
  8. Daher R, Yazbeck T, Jaoude JB, Abboud B. Consequences of dysthyroidism on the digestive tract and viscera. World J Gastroenterol. 2009;15(23):2834-8.
  9. Goldin E, Wengrower D. Diarrhea in hypothyroidism: bacterial overgrowth as a
    possible etiology. J Clin Gastroenterol. 1990 Feb;12(1):98-9.
  10. Laukkarinen J, Sand S, Aittomäki S, et al. Mechanism of the prorelaxing effect of thyroxine on the sphincter of Oddi. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology. 2002;37(6):667–673.
  11. Völzke H, Robinson DM, John U. Association between thyroid function and gallstone disease. World J Gastroenterol. 2005;11(35):5530-4.
  12. Inkinen J, Sand J, Nordback I. Association between common bile duct stones and treated hypothyroidism. Hepatogastroenterology. 2000;47:919–921.
  13. Andreini JP, Prigge WF, Ma C, Gebbard RL. Vesicles and mixed micelles in hypothyroid rat bile before and after thyroid hormone treatment: evidence for a vesicle transport system for biliary cholesterol secretion. J Lipid Res. 1994 Aug;35(8):1405-12.
  14. Stinton LM, Shaffer EA. Epidemiology of gallbladder disease: cholelithiasis and cancer. Gut Liver. 2012;6(2):172-87.
  15. More Unsaturated Fats, Fewer Gallstones?. WebMD. Published October 4, 2004. Accessed February 27, 2019.
  16. Cuevas A, Miquel JF, Reyes MS, Zanlungo S, Nervi F. Diet as a risk factor for cholesterol gallstone disease. J Am Coll Nutr. 2004 Jun;23(3):187-96. Review.
  17. Massironi S, Branchi F, Fraquelli M, et al. Effects of a Gluten-Containing Meal on Gastric Emptying and Gallbladder Contraction. Nutrients. 2018 Jul 16;10(7).
  18. Di Stefano M, Carnevale Maffè G, Bergonzi M, Mengoli C, Formagnana P, DiSabatino A, Corazza GR. The effect of gluten on intestinal fermentation, gastric and gallbladder emptying in healthy volunteers. Dig Liver Dis. 2015. Sep;47(9):751-6.
  19. Shaheen NJ, Hansen RA, Morgan DR, et al. The burden of gastrointestinal and liver diseases, 2006. Am J Gastroenterol. 2006;101:2128–2138.
  20. Milk Thistle. Mayo Clinic website. Published October 14, 2017. Accessed July 3, 2020.
  21. Food, Herbs & Supplements. Natural Medicines website. Accessed July 3, 2020.