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Carnitine References

  1. Benvenga S, Amato A, Calvani M, Trimarchi F. Effects of Carnitine on Thyroid Hormone Action. NY Acad Sci. 2005;1033:158-167. doi:10.1196/annals.1320.015
  2. Marcon M, Mocelin R, de Oliveira DL, et al.. Acetyl-L-carnitine as a putative candidate for the treatment of stress-related psychiatric disorders: Novel evidence from a zebrafish model. Neuropharmacology. 2019 May 15;150:145-152.
  3. Sinclair C, Gilchrist J, Hennessey J, et al. Muscle carnitine in hypo- and hyperthyroidism. Muscle & Nerve. 2005. 32. 357-9.
  4. An JH, Kim YJ, Kim KJ, et al. L-carnitine supplementation for the management of fatigue in patients with hypothyroidism on levothyroxine treatment: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Endocr J. 2016 Oct 29;63(10):885-895. Epub 2016 Jul 16.
  5. El-Sherbini ES, El-Sayed G, El Shotory R, et al. Ameliorative effects of l-carnitine on rats raised on a diet supplemented with lead acetate. Saudi J Biol Sci. 2017 Sep;24(6):1410-1417.
  6. Lau T, Bigio B, Zelli D, McEwen BS, Nasca C. Stress-induced structural plasticity of medial amygdala stellate neurons and rapid prevention by a candidate antidepressant. Mol Psychiatry. 2017 Feb;22(2):227-234.
  7. Longo N, Frigeni M, Pasquali M. Carnitine transport and fatty acid oxidation. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2016 Oct;1863(10):2422-35.
  8. Krajcovicová-Kudlácková M, Simoncic R, Béderová A, Babinská K, Béder I. Correlation of carnitine levels to methionine and lysine intake. Physiol Res. 2000;49(3):399-402.
  9. Karlsson F, Tremaroli V, Nielsen J, Bäckhed F. Assessing the human gut microbiota in metabolic diseases. Diabetes. 2013 Oct;62(10):3341-9.
  10. Keller U, van der Wal C, Seliger G, et al. Carnitine status of pregnant women: effect of carnitine supplementation and correlation between iron status and plasma carnitine concentration. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2009 Sep;63(9):1098-105.
  11. Covarrubias-Pinto A, Acuña AI, Beltrán FA, et al. Old things new view: ascorbic acid protects the brain in neurodegenerative disorders. Int J Mol Sci. 2015 Nov 27;16(12):28194-217.
  12. Barton-Wechsler B, Stachura DL, Ho E, et al. Effects of zinc supplementation on Carnitine and lactate concentrations in cultured liver cells The FASEB Journal. 2017.
  13. Picard M, McEwen BS. Psychological stress and mitochondria: a conceptual framework. Psychosom Med. 2018 Feb/Mar;80(2):126-140.
  14. Benvenga S, Ruggeri RM, Russo A, Lapa D, Campenni A, Trimarchi F. Usefulness of L-carnitine, a naturally occurring peripheral antagonist of thyroid hormone action, in iatrogenic hyperthyroidism: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001 Aug;86(8):3579-94.
  15. Benvenga S, Feldt-Rasmussen U, Bonofiglio D, et al. Nutraceutical supplements in the thyroid setting: health benefits beyond basic nutrition. Nutrients. 2019 Sep 13;11(9). pii: E2214.
  16. Moncayo R, Moncayo H. Applying a systems approach to thyroid physiology: Looking at the whole with a mitochondrial perspective instead of judging single TSH values or why we should know more about mitochondria to understand metabolism. BBA Clin. 2017 Apr 4;7:127-140.
  17. Fariduddin MM, Bansal N. Hypothyroid Myopathy. StatPearls [Internet]. Published January 2019. Accessed June 16, 2020.
  18. Sayed-Ahmed MM. Role of carnitine in cancer chemotherapy-induced multiple organ toxicity. Saudi Pharm J. 2010 Oct;18(4):195-206.
  19. National Institutes of Health. Carnitine: What Is It? Updated October 10, 2017.
  20. Bene, Judit & Hadzsiev, Kinga & Melegh, Bela. (2018). Role of carnitine and its derivatives in the development and management of type 2 diabetes. Nutrition & diabetes. 8. 8. 10.1038/s41387-018-0017-1.
  21. Demarquoy C, Demarquoy J. Autism and carnitine: A possible link. World J Biol Chem. 2019;10(1):7–16.
  22. Christensen J, Grønborg TK, Sørensen MJ, et al. Prenatal valproate exposure and risk of autism spectrum disorders and childhood autism. JAMA. 2013 Apr 24;309(16):1696-703.
  23. Qiliang L, Wenqi S, Hong J. Carnitine deficiency in chinese children with epilepsy on valproate monotherapy. Indian Pediatr. 2018 Mar 15;55(3):222-224.
  24. Cho MK. Thyroid dysfunction and subfertility. Clin Exp Reprod Med. 2015;42(4):131–135.
  25. Agarwal A, Sengupta P, Durairajanayagam D. Role of L-carnitine in female infertility. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2018 Jan 26;16(1):5.
  26. Sharma S, Black SM. Carnitine homeostasis, mitochondrial function and cardiovascular disease. Drug Discov Today Dis Mech. 2009;6(1-4):e31-e39.
  27. Irie J, Kanno Y, Kikuchi R, et al. L-Carnitine improves gastrointestinal disorders and altered the intestinal microbiota in hemodialysis patients. Biosci Microbiota Food Health. 2017;36(1):11-16.
  28. Semba RD, Trehan I, Li X, et al. Environmental enteric dysfunction is associated with carnitine deficiency and altered fatty acid oxidation. EBioMedicine. 2017 Mar;17:57-66.
  29. Obrenovich MEM. Leaky gut, leaky brain? Microorganisms. 2018 Oct 18;6(4). pii:E107.
  30. Fröhlich E, Wahl R. Microbiota and thyroid interaction in health and disease. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2019 Aug;30(8):479-490.
  31. Macfabe D. Autism: metabolism, mitochondria, and the microbiome. Glob Adv Health Med. 2013;2(6):52–66.
  32. Carnitine. Treat Autism. Published October 8, 2012. Accessed June 16, 2020.
  33. Ziats MN, Comeaux MS, Yang Y, et al. Improvement of regressive autism symptoms in a child with TMLHE deficiency following carnitine supplementation. Am J Med Genet A. 2015 Sep;167A(9):2162-7.
  34. Vernon, S.D., Whistler, T., Cameron, B. et al. Preliminary evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction associated with post-infective fatigue after acute infection with Epstein Barr Virus. BMC Infect Dis. 2006;6:15. doi:10.1186/1471-2334-6-15
  35. Murata S, Inoue K, Aomatsu T, Yoden A, Tamai H. Supplementation with carnitine reduces the severity of constipation: a retrospective study of patients with severe motor and intellectual disabilities. J Clin Biochem Nutr. 2017;60(2):121–124.
  36. Ringseis R, Hanisch N, Seliger G, et al. Low availability of carnitine precursors as a possible reason for the diminished plasma carnitine concentrations in pregnant women. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2010 Apr 25;10:17.
  37. Crill CM, Storm MC, Christensen ML, et al. Carnitine supplementation in premature neonates: effect on plasma and red blood cell total carnitine concentrations, nutrition parameters and morbidity. Clin Nutr. 2006 Dec;25(6):886-96.
  38. Ghatak T, Azim A, Mahindra S, Ahmed A. Can Klebsiella sepsis lead to hyperammonemic encephalopathy with normal liver function?. J Anaesthesiol Clin Pharmacol. 2013;29(3):415–416. doi:10.4103/0970-9185.117079
  39. Ehrlich S. Complementary and Alternative Medicine - Penn State Hershey Medical Center: Carnitine (L-carnitine). Penn State Hershey Health Information Library. Published December 28, 2014. Accessed July 2, 2020.